Flooring

Glossary List

Above-grade

A suspended floor, located above ground level, with a minimum of 18 inches of -ventilated air space below. A suspended floor is normally over a basement, but may be over a crawl space.

AC Wear Layer

This durable wear layer protects against wear, stains, and fading. It offers the best resistance to scratches and indentations for your laminate floor.

Acclimation

Refers to the flooring's adjustment to the environment it is in, in terms of moisture and humidity. It is important to let flooring acclimate before installing.

Acoustical Analysis

A review of a space to determine the level of reverberation or reflected sound in the space (in seconds) influenced by the building materials used to construct the space. Also the amount of acoustical absorption required to reduce reverberation and noise.

Acoustics

The science of Sound. Its production, transmission and effects. The branch of physics that treats the phenomena and laws of sounds as it affects people.

Acrylic Infused

Liquid acrylic injected throughout the surface layer of wood to fortify the fibers for added durability.

Airborne Sound

Sound that reaches the point of interest by propagation through air.

Airborne Sound Insulation Index : Ia''

Former name for Weighted Apparent Sound Reduction Index : R'w

Aluminum Oxide

A commonly used flooring finish because of its strength. Second in hardness to diamond, it serves as a protective coating for many hardwoods.

ANSI

The American National Standards Institute. They set USA standards, that in acoustics are usually VERY different to the International (IEC) standards and are often incompatible.  The ANSI sound level meter standard is ANSI S1.4-1983 (R2006). ANSI standards can be bought online from http://webstore.ansi.org

Apparent Sound Reduction Index : R'

Field measurements of Sound Reduction Index include Flanking and any other 'on-site' acoustic limitations. R' = D + 10 lg S/A (dB) where D = Level Difference  S = area of the test specimen (m2)  A = Equivalent Sound Absorption area of the receiving room

Attenuate

To reduce the level of an acoustical signal.

Background noise

The sum total of all noise generated from all direct and reflected sound sources in a space that can represent an interface to good listening and speech intelligibility. (Hearing impaired persons are especially victimized by background noise).

Beveled Edged

Refers to a type of edge available in hardwood flooring. Beveled edges have a “v” shaped groove that is commonly used in informal settings. This edge can also help hide uneven subflooring or differences in plank thickness.

Blind Nailing

Forcing nails into the grooves of tongue-and-groove flooring planks at a 45-degree angle using an electric flooring hammer.

Bull Nose

A smooth, rounded trim installed on a wall.

Burl

A swirl or twist in the grain of hardwood.

Color Variation

Some wood species have a natural variation in light and dark tones from board-to-board.

Combination Base/Shoe

A finishing molding piece used along the outermost edges of the floor where it meets the wall.

Compressive Creep (CC)

The behavior of the underlay when subjected to a sustained load - under heavy furniture, for example - is expressed using the CC value. This rates how an underlay reacts when subjected to a sustained load for ten years. The higher the CC value, the heavier the furniture that can be placed on the flooring system for a sustained period of time.

Compressive Strength (CS)

The capacity of the underlay to support the joining system regharding these types of loads is expressed using the CS value. The higher the CS value, the better the underlay will protect the joining system and counteract the formation and opening-up of any cracks.

Cross-Ply Construction

Engineered hardwood is constructed by stacking planks in alternating directions. This creates stable flooring that is less affected by moisture or changes in humidity.

Crowning

Warping where the center boards are higher than the sides.

Cupping

Warping where the sides are higher than the center.

Cycle

In acoustics, the cycle is the complete oscillation of pressure above and below the atmospheric static pressure.

Damping

The dissipation of vibratory energy in solid media and structures with time or distance. It is analogous to the absorption of sound in air.

Decibel (dB)

Sound level in decibels as a logarithmic ratio. Sound intensity described in decibels.
i.e.: 

  • Breathing – 5 dB

  • Office Activity – 50 dB

  • Jet Aircraft During Takeoff at 300′ Distance – 130 dB

Deflection

The distance an elastic body or spring moves when subjected to a static or dynamic force. Typical units are inches or mm.

Diffusion

The scattering or random reflection of a sound wave from a surface. The directions of reflected sound is changed so that listeners may have sensation of sound coming from all directions at equal levels.

Dimensional Stability

The ability of flooring to retain its original dimensions during the service life of the product

Distressed Visual

A design term that describes an aged, timeworn look.

DIY (Do-It-Yourself)

DIY is an acronym for “do it yourself,” referring to projects that can be installed without a professional. DIY levels range from easy to difficult. The more advanced levels require more complex tools and more DIY project experience.

DPL (Direct Pressure Laminate)

Direct pressure laminate is the most typical fusing method used to manufacture residential laminate flooring. With this method, the surface, inner layers, and pre-attached underlayment are fused in a single press operation.

Dynamic Load (DL)

A typical load for a flooring system is the dynamic load, which is generated when walking over the flooring (e.g. hallways, offices, shop floors, etc.) or when chairs are used (e.g. office chairs rolling on castors, dining room chairs scraping back from the table, etc.). Here, the underlay needs to be able to withstand repeated loads of short duration without undergoing a change to its properties in the long term. This capacity is expressed using the DL value. It involves applying a defined dynamic load to the underlay (as is usually generated when walking or moving an office chair over the floor) and calculating the number of cycles until a change is recorded in the properties of the underlay. The higher the DL value, the longer the underlay will withstand these dynamic loads.

Ear

An incredible hearing mechanism consisting of outer, middle and inner ear segments that cause sound pressures to be picked up by the ear that are transmitted through auditory nerves where signals are interpreted by brain as sound

Eased Edge

Type of edge available in hardwood flooring that is shallower and more rounded than a “v”-shaped, beveled edge.

Edge Detail

A term that describes the way hardwood and laminate board edges and ends are cut. Edges and ends are typically described as square, eased, beveled, and microbeveled.

Embossed-in-Register

A manufacturing process that intensifies the depth, texture, and realistic look of the floor by aligning the embossing with the printed design. This technique is used on Bruce laminate and vinyl floor products.

Engineered

A term describing hardwood construction. Engineered hardwood boards are manufactured from multiple layers – or plies – of wood assembled in a cross-ply construction. The top layer reveals the wood species and color when the planks are installed. Due to its construction, engineered hardwood is more dimensionally stable than solid hardwood and can be installed below grade and over concrete subfloor.

Expansion

Changes in dimension of a wood floor due to swelling and contracting as a result of moisture.

Expansion Gap

Area of perimeter in a space left to account for expansion.

Expansion Spacing

Amount of space left at the baseboard to allow for expansion. 

Face Nail

Nailing technique that secures flooring by using nails perpendicular to the surface, rather than at a concealed angle (blind nailing).

Filled Face

Provides an extra smooth furniture quality “piano” finish.

Finish

Hardwood – the surface coating on pre-finished flooring. Usually either a UV-cured urethane or UV-cured urethane with aluminum oxide finish.
Laminate – clear wear layer protects the floor from high abrasion, stains, fading, and wear-through.

Flanking transmission

Flanking is the transmission of sound from a source room to a receiving room by paths other than through the separating partition. For example, impact sound may be transmitted from one room to another through a common timber floor. Other common mechanisms for flanking transmission include suspended ceilings, pipework, ducting, etc. Flanking sound is always present, except in the 'ideal' acoustics laboratory. In practice the sound insulation is often limited by the flanking transmission.

Flat Sawn (also “plain-sawn”)

Wood cut in long planks where the rings run parallel to the board.

Floating

Installation method in which individual planks are glued and/or locked together, without direct attachment to the subfloor.

Floating Floor

A floor that does not need to be nailed or glued to the subfloor and can be installed over most existing floors, including concrete, ceramic, vinyl, wood, and even some indoor/outdoor carpet.

Floor covering system

Combination of multilayer modular floor covering element and the underlay.

Floor Protectors

Screw-on attachments for the bottom of chair and table legs to distribute the weight of furniture evenly in order to reduce indentations. Abrasions can be prevented with unique, replaceable felt pads on the floor protectors.

Flush Reducer

Used to level the height between a two floor surfaces. Also used to transition from room to room.

Flush Stair

Nose Allows a smooth transition between the stair edge and the riser.

Forest Stewardship Council

An independent, non-governmental, not-for-profit organization established to promote the responsible management of the world’s forests.

FSC

Forest Stewardship Council. An independent, non-governmental, not-for-profit organization established to promote the responsible management of the world’s forests.

Gloss Level

Different sheens that describe levels of gloss on the floor. They are: high gloss, semi-gloss, low gloss, and ultra-low gloss.

Grade Level

Grade refers to the construction level relative to the ground around it. Below grade is below ground level, on grade is at ground level, and above grade is above ground level.

Grain

The visible lines in wood that show the natural growth rings of the log.

Hand-Scraped

Also called hand-sculpted. Hardwood planks are individually scraped to create distinctive, one-of-a-kind floors.

Heartwood

The non-living, central wood of a tree. Heartwood is stronger, more resistant to decay, and less easily penetrated by wood-preservative chemicals than sapwood.

Hertz (Hz)

Frequency of sound expressed by cycles per second.

High-density Fiberboard (HDF)

A core board used to make engineered hardwood. HDF provides more stability than plywood. It is made by compressing fibers of wood chips with an adhesive or binder at high temperatures.

HPL (High Pressure Laminate)

High pressure laminate is an extra-hard fusing process used to manufacture laminate flooring. The surface, inner layers, and pre-attached underlayment are fused in a multiple-step press operation

Impact Isolation Class (IIC)

The methods to measure the degree of impact noise isolation provided by a floor/ceiling assembly, in laboratory conditions, are described in the ASTM E 492 or ISO 140/6 standards. For field measurements refer to ASTM E 1007 or ISO 140/7.
The impacts for these measurements are produced by the “Standard Tapping Machine”, an electrically operated mechanism consisting of five 0.5 kg hammers which fall regularly and freely onto floor surface from 40 mm height at a rate of 10 impacts/second. The sound pressure levels generated in the room directly below the floor/ceiling assembly undergoing testing are then measured, for each of the 16 third-octave-bands between 100 Hz and 3150 Hz, and they are normalized according to:

  • An absorption equal to 10 metric Sabins, or

  • A reverberation time of 0.5 seconds (ISO 140/7)


The Normalized Impact Sound Pressure Levels (NISPL) are then plotted on a standard graph.  The IIC rating of the tested floor/ceiling assemblers determined by sliding the classification curve on the graph representing the normalized sound pressure levels, until the following conditions described in the ASTM E 989 (ISO 717/2) standards, are met:

  • The sum of the deviations above the normalizing curve should not exceed 32 dB.

  • The maximum deviation above the normalizing curve should not exceed 8 dB (see previous note on the classification of the isolation of airborne noise according to the ISO standard).


When the IIC contour is positioned in such a way that these two requirements are satisfied, the Impact Isolation Class (IIC) can be obtained by reading the normalized impact sound pressure level at the intersection of the IIC contour frequencies of 500 Hz and by subtracting this value from the number 110.

Impact Sound

The sound produced by the collision of two solid objects. Typical sources are footsteps, dropped objects, etc., on an interior surface (wall, floor, or ceiling) of a building.

Impact Sound Insulation

Is expressed by a single value Ln,w or L' n,w

Impact Sound Reduction (IS)

Impact sound is understood as the noise, which is heard in the room below or next door as the structure-borne noise generated, when floor covering is used. The capacity of an underlay to reduce impact sound is expressed using the IS (noise impact reduction) value. The higher the IS value, the better the underlay will reduce the transmission of footstep noise.

Inlay

It is a layer that when placed very close to the noise source dissipates energy transmitted by the foot when hitting the floor. It is used underneath a paper, a vinyl or a veneer facing layer.

Installation Level

Refers to the grade levels of the installation site.

ISO

The International Organization for Standardisation. They are a similar organisation to IEC, but ISO set standards for measurements methods NOT for the instrument. They are available from www.iso.org/

Laminate Backing

A thermo-fused backing that provides additional strength and protection and ensures the floor stays flat, even when exposed to bottom-up moisture, which is particularly common with installations over concrete.

Laminate Flooring

Hard surface flooring utilizing a fiberboard core and Melamine wear layer that is available in blocks, planks, and squares and can be installed as individual units.

Laminate Flooring

Glue Adhesive used to provide extra durability and moisture resistance in areas that might be exposed to high moisture, such as bathrooms and near kitchen sinks.

Laminate Image Layer

The look of your laminate floor, in a wide variety of domestic and exotic wood, stone, and tile visuals. Laminate Surface A clear wear layer for super protection, even against the harsh punishment of sunlight, stains, and burns.

Level difference : D

Airborne sound insulation - field measurements. The difference in the space and time averaged Sound Pressure Levels.
D = L1 - L2
L1 = average Sound Pressure Level in the source room 
L2 = average Sound Pressure Level in the receiving room 
Ln : Normalized Impact Sound Pressure Level : laboratory measurement.
L'n : Normalized Impact Sound Pressure Level : field measurement. 
LnT : Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level : laboratory measurement. 
L'nT : Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level : field measurement. 
Ln,w : Weighted Normalized Impact Sound Pressure Level : laboratory measurement.
LnT,w : Weighted Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level : based on laboratory measurement of LnT. 
L'nT,w : Weighted Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level : based on field measurement of L'nT.

Linoleum

One of the first resilient floors, it was introduced in the 1800s. Made of linseed oil, gums, cork or wood dust and pigments, linoleum is no longer manufactured in the U.S. Often the term is used incorrectly to describe resilient floors made of vinyl.

Locking Floating/Locking Installation System

Method of installing laminate or wood flooring with a unique tongue-and-groove profile that allows for easy installation of boards by just locking edges into place. No glue is required. Allows for installation up to 30% faster than standard installation. Locking floors “float” over the subfloor.

Luxury vinyl tile flooring

It is an increasingly popular product and yet it does not have an established definition.  We hear LVT,  LVP and LVS among other acronyms. The acronym LVT is the most popular of the terms and used to identify “luxury vinyl tile flooring.”
As luxury vinyl tile flooring came into popularity, flooring manufacturers and dealers would group a large number of vinyl flooring products together and refer to all of them as LVT or luxury vinyl tile. Luxury vinyl tile flooring or LVT is still the most popular term used to describe a variety of vinyl flooring products. The industry has also started to use additional terms and acronyms for the growing number of flooring styles that are being produced.  LVP for “luxury vinyl plank” and LVS  for “luxury vinyl sheet.” Mannington a leading producer of resilient floor covering products is referring to LVS as “the next evolution in sheet vinyl flooring.” Luxury vinyl tile flooring is designed to simulate both natural and man made products such as wood, natural stone, granite, ceramic and attractive designer patterns.  Style possibilities are limitless as the pattern that you see is actually an image that has been produced using high definition photography.

M.S.D.S. (Materials Safety Data Sheet)

Lists hazardous ingredients, safety precautions, and first aid information about a product.

Mass Law

A doubling in Mass or Frequency results in a 6 dB increase in the sound insulation of a single leaf partition over a defined frequency range. Mass Law provides a good working rule to predict the airborne sound insulation of a partition up to the region of the Critical Frequency and the Coincidence Effect 

Mixed Media

A decorating term that refers to the use of multiple materials in one piece of furniture, art, or installation. Ex: Wood flooring with slate accents.

MMFA Multilayer Modular Flooring Association

The MMFA Multilayer Modular Flooring Association is an organization which represents the leading producers of flooring in Europe and their suppliers. The Association was established in late October 2012 in Munich, Germany, by seven European flooring producers. The association's registered headquarters are in Bielefeld, also in Germany. The sphere of activities covers all of Europe.

MMFA Product Classes

Classification used by MMFA .Floating multilayer modular floor coverings are currently classified by MMFA as:
Floating, multilayer modular floorings…
Class 1:  HDF substrate with polymer layer (excl. lacquer only).
Class 2:  Polymer or polymer-composite substrate with polymer layer and/or lacquer.
Class 3:  All products not covered by class 1 or 2, or external standards.
Note: Class 3, for example, covers modules using a click system and textile surface or those on a mineral core.

Mode

A room resonance. Axial modes are associated with pairs of parallel walls. Tangential modes involve four room surfaces and oblique modes all six surfaces. Their effect is greatest at low frequencies and for small rooms.

Modular

Elements supplied in single sheets or tiles with worked edges that allow the product to be joint together to form a layer integral floor covering unit.

Moisture Content

The amount of moisture in real wood.

Moldings

Trim or transition pieces that give an installed floor a finished look.

Multilayer Modular Floor covering

Category that comprises semi-rigid, decorative floor covering having a multiple layer product structure, typically in a plank or tile format consisting of a wear-resistant top layer, a decorative surface layer, a substrate and usually a backer.  It comprises the planks/tiles having worked edges that allow the product to be joined together to form a larger integral unit and it is installed in so-called ‘floating floor fitting’ using a click connection (thus glue-free). A floor panel: semi-rigid decorative floor covering (…) – typically in a plank or tile format – having a multiple layer product structure consisting of a wear-resistant top layer, a decorative surface layer, a substrate and usually a backer, the planks/tiles having worked edges that allow the product to be joined together to form a larger integral unit.

Noise reduction coefficient (NRC)

The NRC of an acoustical material is the arithmetic average to the nearest multiple of 0.05 of its absorption coefficients at 4 one third octave bands with center frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 Hertz.

Normalized impact sound pressure level : Ln

Laboratory measurement.
Ln = Li + 10 lg A/A0 dB
where:
A = measured Equivalent Sound Absorption area in the receiving room
A0 = Reference Absorption area.
In all cases where it is uncertain whether results are obtained without flanking transmission the normalized impact sound pressure level should be denoted by L'n.

Normalized impact sound pressure level : L'n

Field measurement.
The Normalisation formulae for Ln directly above also applies for L'n.

Normalized level difference : Dn

Airborne sound transmission. The sound insulation index measured under field conditions, between 'real' rooms and therefore includes effects due to Flanking, different room sizes and other on-site considerations.
Dn = D - 10 lg A/A0
where 
D = level difference in dB
A = Equivalent Sound Absorption area of the receiving room in square metres 
A0 = Reference Absorption area in square metres (10 m²) 
R : Sound Reduction Index : laboratory measurement.
R' : Apparent Sound Reduction Index : field measurement.
Rw : Weighted Sound Reduction Index : laboratory measurement.
R'w : Weighted Apparent Sound Reduction Index : field measurement. 
Certified Sound Insulation Test Equipment

Parquet

Inlaid woodwork in geometric forms, sometimes of contrasting woods, used in flooring. A common example is individual pickets of wood flooring, adhered together in groups of six pickets – then four picketed squares are alternately adhered to form a tile pattern.

Photo Sensitivity

The likelihood that a floor’s natural color will change after long-term exposure to natural light.

Plain-Sawn (also “flat sawn”)

Standard way of cutting logs to make hardwood flooring.

Plank

Board width is 3 inches/ 7cm or greater.

Ply (Plies)

Another word for a layer of wood, typically used to describe engineered hardwood construction layers.

Polyurethane

A type of finish used on hardwood to protect it from damage. A type of binder used on aglomeration of cork layers for a flooring system.

Pre-Attached Underlayment

The use of a pre-attached underlayment as part of a flooring system acts like the traditional underlay, preventing the transmission of mechanical energy through the slab. A pre-attached underlayment on the reverse dulls impact noise and improves the laying characteristics of the flooring.

Prefinished

Hardwood floors that are stained with color and sealed with a protective finish by the manufacturer prior to installation.

Punctual Conformability (PC)

Smaller local imperfections can be leveled out using appropriate underlays. These are able to accommodate small grains of screed, for example, and thus create a flat surface for laying the floor covering on top of the underlay.
The capacity to level out localized uneven areas is expressed using the PC value. This is
always given in mm and indicates an underlay’s capacity to level out an uneven surface.
The higher the PC value, the better suited the underlay will be for leveling out localized
uneven areas.
 

Reflection

The amount of sound wave energy (sound) that is reflected off a surface. Hard non-porous surfaces reflect more sound than soft-porous surfaces. Some sound reflection can enhance quality of signal of speech and music. (See Echo).

Resilient

A floor or a layer that has some "give" or elasticity when you walk across them. This category includes linoleum, cork, rubber and specialty resilient.

Sapwood

The tree's pipeline for moving water and minerals up the tree trunk to the leaves. Sapwood is new wood. As newer rings of sapwood are produced, its inner cells lose their vitality and turn into heartwood.

Shoe Molding

Humidity-resistant molding for high traffic areas.

Solid Vinyl Flooring

This smooth-surface plastic floor is a mixture of vinyl resins, plasticizer, fillers and stabilizers with color added throughout the product. Produced in either square tiles or sheet goods.

Solid Wood

Boards manufactured from ONE piece of wood, unlike engineered wood, which uses multiple plies to form the boards.

Sound Insulation

Is the ability of building elements or structures to reduce sound transmission
To compare sound insulation properties you need to take into account the area of the dividing partition/wall, as well as the volume and sound absorption properties of the receiving room. To do this, measurements are Normalized to a Reference Absorption value or Standardized Reverberation Time.
Absorption and Reverberation Time are mathematically related so if the reverberation time is measured in the receiving room then both procedures are catered for.
A single number to present the results and compare products would be useful, this is where the Weighted term comes in. 
The sound insulation is measured at different frequencies, normally 100-3150 Hz. 
Airborne sound insulation is expressed by a single value, Dn,t,w, Rw or R'w. 
Impact sound insulation is expressed by a single value Ln,w or L' n,w
 

Sound reduction index : R

The measured quantity which characterises the sound insulating properties of a material or building element in a stated frequency band - laboratory measurement.
R = L1 - L2 + 10 lg S/A (dB)
where:
L1: average Sound Pressure Level in the source room 
L2: average sound pressure level in the receiving room 
S: area of the test specimen (m2) 
A: Equivalent Sound Absorption area of the receiving room

Sound transmission class (STC)

A single-number rating obtained by classifying the measured values of Sound Transmission Loss in accordance with ASTM Standard E 413, “Classification for Sound Rating Insulations”. It provides a quick indication of the performance of a partition for certain common sound insulation problems. 
To determine the Sound Transmission Class (STC) in conformance to the ASTM E 413 (lSO 71 7/1) one must slide the STC contour along its Y-axis of the graph on which the transmission loss curve is plotted until the following conditions are met:
The sum of the deviation below the STC contour does not exceed 32 dB.
No deviation below the STC contour exceeds 8 dB.
Note: The ISO standard excludes this last requirement. One should indicate however in the test report, the frequencies at which a difference of 8 dB or more occurs between the noise reduction curve and the STC contour. 
When the STC contour is positioned in such a way that these two requirements are satisfied the sound transmission class can be obtained by reading the transmission loss value at the intersection of the STC contour at the frequency of 500 Hz. This value corresponds to the STC of the partition.

Sound transmission class (STC)

American single number rating of a partition's isolation value based on laboratory measurement. Results may not be compatible with Rw as a different range of frequencies is used. 

Soundproofing

Building materials that make structures impervious to sound or insulates against sound.

SPL: sound pressure level

Quantity used to describe the loudness of a sound. The sound pressure level is expressed in decibels and is measured with a sound level meter. For example, a conversation between two people inside an average-size room will produce an average “A” weighted sound pressure level of 50 to 55 lb.

Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level : LnT

The impact Sound Pressure Level in a stated frequency band, corrected for the standardized reverberation time of 0.5 seconds. Laboratory measurement. LnT = Li - 10 lg T/T0 dB where:  T = measured Reverberation Time in seconds T0 for dwellings = 0.5 seconds.

Standardized Impact Sound Pressure Level : L'nT

The impact Sound Pressure Level in a stated frequency band, corrected for the standardized reverberation time of 0.5 seconds. Field measurement, written L'nT to differentiate between LnT

Standardized Level Difference : DnT

Airborne sound transmission. Similar to the Dn, but this index corrects the measured difference to a standardized reverberation time of 0.5 seconds. This RT value is often cited as approximately average for a medium sized, carpeted and furnished living room. It does not require detailed and accurate knowledge of the dimensions of the test rooms.
DnT = D + 10 lg T/T0
where: 
D = level difference 
T = reverberation time in the receiving room
T0 = reference Reverberation Time, 0.5 seconds for dwellings.

Structural Integrity

A term often used in a guarantee or warranty to assure the floor’s composition/construction will remain intact.

Structure born noise

Noise that arrives at a point of interest by propagation through a solid structure.

Subfloor

The structural layer intended to provide the home's floor support, which may receive floor coverings directly if the surface is appropriate, or indirectly via an underlayment if the surface is not suitable.

Substrate

Structural layer on which the flooring system is installed.

Taber

Measure of the wear of flooring through resistance. The industry standard is 300-600 cycles of abrasion testing.

Texture

The term used to describe the surface look and feel of flooring. Textures can range from silky smooth to hand-scraped and distressed.

Thermal Resistance (R)

It is a heat property and a measurement of a temperature difference by which an object or material resists a heat flow. Thermal resistance is the reciprocal of thermal conductance. The lower the Rλ,B value of the flooring system and/or the R value of the underlay, the better suited the flooring system will be for use on a heated/cooled substrate.

Threshold

A finishing piece applied to the area where the wood transitions to another flooring level or another flooring type.

T-Molding

Molding piece that finishes the space between two areas of hardwood or laminate flooring. For laminate, it also fills the gap at doorways.

Tongue and Groove

Refers to the profile construction of the board edges, which allows them to be pushed together and locked for a more stable construction.

Top Layer

It is a component of a flooring system designed for direct and digital printing. Its compact and smooth surface allows the printing of a customized design, while contributing for an extraordinary performance on the impact noise attenuation.

Transition Strip

Installation accessory that bridges two floors of different heights to equalize the height differential. Transition strips are functional and decorative.

Ultraviolet Light

Ultraviolet (UV) light is part of the light spectrum. UV light wavelengths cannot be seen by the human eye. 

Underlay / Underlayment

Resilient layer between the substrate and floor covering, added to obtain specific properties. As underlays, it is also possible to have combinations of the above mentioned underlays with films or coatings (e.g. vapor barriers).

UV light source

Direct sunlight or strong artificial light over a long period of time can potentially lead to changes in the colour of the floor covering.

UV-Cured

UV lighting bonds the molecular structure of the urethane finish to improve stain resistance and to make the floor easier to clean.

Varnish

A flooring or furniture finish that uses oils that are cured slowly over time.

Veneer

A thin layer of real hardwood glued to a core to create engineered hardwood flooring. Veneers can vary in thickness from 0.6mm to 6mm.

Vinyl

Made from a mixture of polyvinyl chloride and plasticizer, it is usually flexible and non-porous. Pigments are added for color.

Vinyl Composition Tile

These floor tiles are made from vinyl resins and filler materials to create resilient flooring in assorted colors and patterns.

VOCs (volatile organic compounds)

VOC is an acronym for volatile organic compounds, which are gases that can trigger allergic reactions, asthma, and upper respiratory infections. All Bruce floors have very low VOC levels.

Water vapor diffusion resistance (Sd-value) (SD)

With mineral substrates (e.g. concrete, screed, etc.), a certain amount of residual
moisture in the substrate is to be expected, which might damage the floor covering.
Therefore, a water vapor control layer in the form of a film is recommended for use on
mineral substrates as a general principle. Water vapor control layers can be either
integrated into the underlay or laid separately. The thickness of the water vapor control layer on its own is not significant in this case, but the type and quality of the water vapor control layer are important.
The capacity to impede the diffusion of vapor is expressed using the sd value (SD). Based on practical experience, this value should be at least 75 m.
The higher the SD value, the better the film will protect the floor covering against damage caused by rising damp.

Wavelength

Sound that passes through air it produces a wavelike motion of compression and Parefaction. Wavelength is the distance between two identical positions in the cycle or wave. Similar to ripples or waves produced by dropping two stones in water. Length of sound wave varies with frequency. Low frequency equals longer wavelengths.

Wearlayer

A layer of material applied to the top surface of vinyl flooring. The thickness of the wearlayer varies with each vinyl product collection, or series, and is generally measured in mils. The thickness of a mil is about the same as a page in a phone book. Premium wearlayers offer superior resistance to stains, scuffs and scratches. How long a vinyl floor will look new and fresh is based on the wearlayer’s performance.